首页 > 编程技术 > python

Python中的tkinter库简单案例详解

发布时间:2022-1-21 16:34 作者:A-L-Kun

tkinter是Python的标准GUI库。Python使用tkinter可以快速的创建GUI应用程序。这篇文章主要介绍了Python中的tkinter库简单案例详解,需要的朋友可以参考下

TKinter
Python 的 GUI 库非常多,之所以选择 Tkinter,一是最为简单,二是自带库,不需下载安装,随时使用,跨平台兼容性非常好,三则是从需求出发的,Python 在实际应用中极少用于开发复杂的桌面应用,毕竟,Python 的各种 GUI 工具包都“一般得很”,不具备优势。

案例一

Label & Button 标签和按钮

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x100")  # 设置窗口的大小
var1 = tk.StringVar()  # 定义tk变量
l1 = tk.Label(window, textvariable=var1, bg="green", font=("Arial", 12), width=15, height=2)  # 设置标签,内容显示为var1变量
l1.pack()  # 摆放这个标签
hit_me1 = False
def hit_me():
    global hit_me1
    if not hit_me1:
        hit_me1 = True
        var1.set("this is tk")  # 给变量赋值
    else:
        hit_me1 = False
        var1.set("this is tk, too")
b1 = tk.Button(window, text="hit me", width=15, height=2, command=hit_me)  # 点击按钮,运行hit_me这个函数
b1.pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例二

Entry & Text 输入和文本框

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x150")  # 设置窗口的大小
e = tk.Entry(window, show=None)  # 如果输入密码的话,show="*"
e.pack()
def insert_point():
    var = e.get()  # 得到文本输入框的值
    t.insert("insert", var)  # 文本放到光标位置
def insert_end():
    var = e.get()
    t.insert("end", var)  # 将文本放到文本框的末尾
    # t.insert(1.1, var)  # 将文本放到第一行第一列
b1 = tk.Button(window, text="insert point", width=15, height=2, command=insert_point).pack()  # 定义一个按钮,显示在光标位置插入文本
b2 = tk.Button(window, text="insert end", width=15, height=2, command=insert_end).pack()  # 在末尾出插入
t = tk.Text(window, height=2, width=15)
t.pack()  # 注意不能一行写完,pack要写在下一行
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例三

Listbox 部件

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x150")  # 设置窗口的大小
var1 = tk.StringVar()
l = tk.Label(window, bg="yellow", width=4, textvariable=var1)
l.pack()
def print_selection():
    var = lb.get(lb.curselection())  # 得到鼠标点击的内容
    var1.set(var)  # 将值赋值给var1
b1 = tk.Button(window, text="insert point", width=15, height=2,
               command=print_selection).pack()  # 定义一个按钮,显示在光标位置插入文本
var2 = tk.StringVar()  # 存储可迭代对象的值
var2.set((1, 2, 3, 4))  # 列表也可,设置初始值
lb = tk.Listbox(window, listvariable=var2)
list_item = [1, 2, 11, 54]
for i in list_item:
    lb.insert("end", i)  # 向列表框中插入值
lb.delete(1)  # 删除下标索引为2的值
lb.pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例四

Radiobutton 选择按钮

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x150")  # 设置窗口的大小
var1 = tk.StringVar()
l = tk.Label(window, bg="yellow", width=15)
l.pack()
def print_selection():
    l.config(text=f"you have select {var1.get()}")  # 将text重新赋值
rad1 = tk.Radiobutton(window, text="select a", variable=var1, value="A",
                      command=print_selection).pack()  # variable=var1, value="A" 的意思是,将var1赋值成A
rad2 = tk.Radiobutton(window, text="select b", variable=var1, value="B", command=print_selection).pack()
rad3 = tk.Radiobutton(window, text="select c", variable=var1, value="C", command=print_selection).pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例五

Scale 尺度

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x150")  # 设置窗口的大小
l = tk.Label(window, bg="yellow", width=15)
l.pack()
def print_selection(v):  # Scale调用函数,其有自动的传入值
    l.config(text=f"you have select {v}")
    
s = tk.Scale(window, label="try me", from_=5, to=11, orient=tk.HORIZONTAL,
             length=200, showvalue=0, tickinterval=3, resolution=0.01, command=print_selection)
# label设置名字,from to 设置刻度,orient设置方向,length设置长度,showvalue展示的值,tickinterval刻度,resolution精度
s.pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例六

Checkbutton 勾选项

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x150")  # 设置窗口的大小
l = tk.Label(window, bg="yellow", width=15, text="empty")
l.pack()
def print_selection():  # Scale调用函数,其有自动的传入值
    if (var1.get() == 1) & (var2.get() == 0):
        l.config(text="i love python")
    elif (var1.get() == 1) & (var2.get() == 1):
        l.config(text="i love both")
    elif (var1.get() == 0) & (var2.get() == 1):
        l.config(text="i love C++")
    else:
        l.config(text="i don't love either")
var1 = tk.IntVar()
var2 = tk.IntVar()
cl = tk.Checkbutton(window, text="Python", variable=var1, onvalue=1, offvalue=0
                    , command=print_selection)  # 选择var1的值为1,否则为0
c2 = tk.Checkbutton(window, text="C++", variable=var2, onvalue=1, offvalue=0
                    , command=print_selection)
cl.pack()
c2.pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例七

Canvas 画布

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("muy window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x200")  # 设置窗口的大小
canvas = tk.Canvas(window, bg="blue", height=100, width=200)
image_file = tk.PhotoImage(file=r"D:\programme\web\web_file\web学习\images\image01.jpg")  # 注意,只能导入.gif的图片
image = canvas.create_image(0, 0, anchor="nw", image=image_file).pack()  # 锚点为左上角,西北方向
x0, y0, x1, y1 = 20, 50, 80, 80
line = canvas.create_line(x0, y0, x1, y1)  # 画线
oval = canvas.create_oval(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill="red")  # 绘制扇形
arc = canvas.create_arc(x0 + 30, y0 + 30, x1 + 30, x1 + 30, y1 + 30, start=0, extent=180)  # 扇形
rect = canvas.create_rectangle(100, 30, 100 + 20, 30 + 20)  # 绘制正方形
canvas.pack()
def moveit():
    canvas.move(rect, 0, 2)  # 移动正方形,使其往下走两个单位
a = tk.Button(window, text="move", command=moveit).pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例八

Menubar 菜单

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("my window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x200")  # 设置窗口的大小
count = 0
l = tk.Label(window, text="", bg="yellow")
l.pack()
def do_job():
    global count
    l.config(text=f"do{str(count)}")
    count += 1
"""定义文件选项"""
mb = tk.Menu(window)
file = tk.Menu(mb, tearoff=0)  # 有没有分隔线
mb.add_cascade(label="File", menu=file)  # 添加一个功能
file.add_command(label="New", command=do_job)  # 每一个选项都是一个功能,命令
file.add_command(label="Open", command=do_job)
file.add_command(label="Save", command=do_job)
sm = tk.Menu(file)  # 在File里面继续添加命令
file.add_cascade(label="Submit", menu=sm)
sm.add_command(label="New", command=do_job)
window.config(menu=mb)  # 将菜单添加到window上面
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例九

Frame 框架

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("my window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x200")  # 设置窗口的大小
tk.Label(window, text="on the window").pack()
# 添加框架
fm = tk.Frame(window)
fm.pack()
fm_1 = tk.Frame(fm)
fm_r = tk.Frame(fm)
fm_1.pack(side="left")
fm_r.pack(side="right")
tk.Label(fm_1, text="on the frame_1").pack()
tk.Label(fm_r, text="on the frame_r").pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例十

messagebox 弹窗

import tkinter as tk
import tkinter.messagebox
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("my window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x200")  # 设置窗口的大小
def hit_me():
    tk.messagebox.showinfo(title="hi", message="hit")  # 注意,要导入模块,还有showwarning, showerror,
"""
tkinter.messagebox.askokcancel('提示', '要执行此操作吗')#确定/取消,返回值true/false
tkinter.messagebox.askquestion('提示', '要执行此操作吗')#是/否,返回值yes/no
tkinter.messagebox.askyesno('提示', '要执行此操作吗')#是/否,返回值true/false
tkinter.messagebox.askretrycancel('提示', '要执行此操作吗')#重试/取消,返回值true/false
文件对话框
import tkinter.filedialog
a = tkinter.filedialog.asksaveasfilename()#返回文件名
print(a)
a = tkinter.filedialog.asksaveasfile()#会创建文件
a = tkinter.filedialog.askopenfilename()#返回文件名
a = tkinter.filedialog.askopenfile()#返回文件流对象
a = tkinter.filedialog.askdirectory()#返回目录名
a = tkinter.filedialog.askopenfilenames()#可以返回多个文件名
a = tkinter.filedialog.askopenfiles()#多个文件流对象
    
tk.Button(window, text="hit me", command=hit_me).pack()
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

案例十一

pack grid place 放置

import tkinter as tk
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("my window")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("200x200")  # 设置窗口的大小
# tk.Label(window, text="pack").pack(side="top")
# tk.Label(window, text="pack").pack(side="bottom")
# tk.Label(window, text="pack").pack(side="left")
# tk.Label(window, text="pack").pack(side="right")
# for i in range(4):  # 行
#     for j in range(3):  # 列
#         tk.Label(window, text="grid").grid(row=i, column=j, padx=10, pady=10)  # 以方格的形式放置
tk.Label(window, text="place").place(x=100, y=100, anchor="nw")  # 点的形式
window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

登录窗口

import tkinter as tk
import tkinter.messagebox
 
window = tk.Tk()  # 实例化Tk
window.title("login")  # 设置标题
window.geometry("450x300")  # 设置窗口的大小
user_info = [{"name": "admin", "pwd": "1"}, {"name": "user", "pwd": "1"}]  # 存储账号信息
# 定义函数
def login():
    user_info_name = [i["name"] for i in user_info]
    user_info_pwd = [i["pwd"] for i in user_info]
    user_name = var_user_name.get()
    user_pwd = var_pwd.get()
    if user_name in user_info_name:
        if user_pwd == user_info_pwd[user_info_name.index(user_name)]:
            tk.messagebox.showinfo(title="欢迎回来", message="How are you")
        else:
            tk.messagebox.showerror(message="pwd error")
    else:
        answer = tk.messagebox.askquestion(title="warn", message="您还没有账号,是否需要注册?")
        if answer:
            sign()
def sign():
    def store():
        new_pwd1 = new_pwd.get()
        new_user_name1 = new_user_name.get()
        user_info.append({"name": new_user_name1, "pwd": new_pwd1})
        tk.messagebox.showinfo(message="注册成功")
        window_sign.destroy()  # 关闭窗口
    def close():
        window_sign.destroy()
    window_sign = tk.Toplevel(window)  # 窗口上的窗口
    window_sign.geometry("350x200")
    window_sign.title("Sign up window")
    # user
    tk.Label(window_sign, text="Name:").place(x=60, y=60)
    new_user_name = tk.StringVar()  # 注意要使用.get()得到值
    new_user_name.set("[email protected]")  # 默认值
    tk.Entry(window_sign, textvariable=new_user_name).place(x=90, y=60)  # 输入用户名
    # pwd
    tk.Label(window_sign, text="Pwd:").place(x=60, y=100)
    new_pwd = tk.StringVar()
    tk.Entry(window_sign, textvariable=new_pwd, show="*").place(x=90, y=100)  # 输入密码
    # 确认按钮
    tk.Button(window_sign, text="确认", command=store).place(x=100, y=140)
    # 取消按钮
    tk.Button(window_sign, text="取消", command=close).place(x=170, y=140)
if __name__ == '__main__':
    
    tk.Label(window, text="User Name:").place(x=50, y=50)
    var_user_name = tk.StringVar()  # 注意要使用.get()得到值
    var_user_name.set("[email protected]")  # 默认值
    tk.Entry(window, textvariable=var_user_name).place(x=130, y=50)  # 输入用户名
    tk.Label(window, text="Password:").place(x=50, y=90)
    var_pwd = tk.StringVar()
    tk.Entry(window, textvariable=var_pwd, show="*").place(x=130, y=90)  # 输入密码
    # login Button
    tk.Button(window, text="Login", command=login).place(x=130, y=130)  # 登录按钮
    # sign Button
    tk.Button(window, text="Sign Up", command=sign).place(x=200, y=130)  # 注册按钮
    window.mainloop()  # 显示窗口

本文来自博客园,作者:A-L-Kun,转载请注明原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/liuzhongkun/p/15829678.html

到此这篇关于Python中的tkinter库简单案例详解的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关Python中的tkinter库内容请搜索猪先飞以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持猪先飞!

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/liuzhongkun/p/15829678.html

您可能感兴趣的文章: